$name - General

The region of present day Georgia contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Kartli-Iberia. The area came under Roman influence in the first centuries A.D., and Christianity became the state religion in the 330s. Domination by Persians, Arabs, and Turks was followed by a Georgian golden age (11th-13th centuries) that was cut short by the Mongol invasion of 1236. Subsequently, the Ottoman and Persian empires competed for influence in the region. Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1921 and regained its independence when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Mounting public discontent over rampant corruption and ineffective government services, followed by an attempt by the incumbent Georgian Government to manipulate national legislative elections in November 2003 touched off widespread protests that led to the resignation of Eduard SHEVARDNADZE, president since 1995. In the aftermath of that popular movement, which became known as the "Rose Revolution," new elections in early 2004 swept Mikheil SAAKASHVILI into power along with his United National Movement (UNM) party. Progress on market reforms and democratization has been made in the years since independence, but this progress has been complicated by Russian assistance and support to the separatist regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Periodic flare-ups in tension and violence culminated in a five-day conflict in August 2008 between Russia and Georgia, including the invasion of large portions of undisputed Georgian territory. Russian troops pledged to pull back from most occupied Georgian territory, but in late August 2008 Russia unilaterally recognized the independence of Abkhazia and South Ossetia, and Russian military forces remain in those regions. Billionaire philanthropist Bidzina IVANISHVILI's unexpected entry into politics in October 2011 brought the divided opposition together under his Georgian Dream coalition, which won a majority of seats in the October 2012 parliamentary election and removed UNM from power. Conceding defeat, SAAKASHVILI named IVANISHVILI as prime minister and allowed Georgian Dream to create a new government. Georgian Dream's Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI was inaugurated as president on 17 November 2013, ending a tense year of power-sharing between SAAKASHVILI and IVANISHVILI. IVANISHVILI voluntarily resigned from office after the presidential succession, and Georgia's legislature on 20 November 2013 confirmed Irakli GARIBASHVILI as his replacement. Georgia's recent elections represent unique examples of a former Soviet state that emerged to conduct democratic and peaceful government transitions of power. Popular and government support for integration with the West is high in Georgia. Joining the EU and NATO are among the country's top foreign policy goals.

Source: CIA World Fact Book


Country name:
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Georgia
local long form: none
local short form: Sak'art'velo
former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

Government type:



name: Tbilisi
geographic coordinates: 41 41 N, 44 50 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

Administrative divisions:

9 regions (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 1 city (kalaki), and 2 autonomous republics (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika)
regions: Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli
city: Tbilisi
autonomous republics: Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika (Bat'umi)
note: the administrative centers of the two autonomous republics are shown in parentheses


9 April 1991 (from the Soviet Union); notable earlier date: A.D. 1008 (Georgia unified under King BAGRAT III)

National holiday:

Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 was the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 was the date of independence from the Soviet Union


previous 1921, 1978 (based on 1977 Soviet Union constitution); latest approved 24 August 1995, effective 17 October 1995; amended several times, last in 2013 (2013)

Legal system:

civil law system

International law organization participation:

accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; accepts ICCt jurisdiction


18 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI (since 17 November 2013)
head of government: Prime Minister Irakli GARIBASHVILI (since 20 November 2013)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
(For more information visit the World Leaders website Opens in New Window)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 27 October 2013 (next to be held in October 2018)
election results: Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI elected president; percent of vote - Giorgi MARGVELASHVILI 62.1%, Davit BAKRADZE 21.7%, Nino BURJANADZE 10.2%, other 6%

Legislative branch:

unicameral Parliament or Parlamenti (150 seats; 77 members elected by proportional representation, 73 elected in single-member constituencies; members to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 1 October 2012 (next to be held in 2016)
election results: percent of vote by party - Georgian Dream 55%, United National Movement 40.3%, other 4.7%; seats by party - Georgian Dream 85, United National Movement 65

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court (organized into several specialized judicial chambers; number of judges determined by the president of Georgia); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges)
note - the Abkhazian and Ajarian Autonomous republics each have a supreme court and a hierarchy of lower courts
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges nominated by the president and appointed by the Parliament; judges serve not less than 10-year terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president following candidate selection by the Justice Council of Georgia, a 12-member consultative body of high-level judges, and presidential and parliamentary appointees; judges appointed for 10-year terms
subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; regional (town) and district courts

Political parties and leaders:

Christian Democratic Movement [Giorgi AKHVELDIANI]
Conservative Party [Zviad DZIDZIGURI]
European Democrats [Paata DAVITAIA]
For Fair Georgia [Zurab NOGAIDELI]
Free Georgia [Kakha KUKAVA]
Georgian Dream (a six-party coalition composed of Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia, Republican Party, Our Georgia-Free Democrats, National Forum, Conservative Party, and Industry Will Save Georgia)
Georgian Dream-Democratic Georgia [Irakli GARIBASHVILI]
Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]
Georgian Troupe [Jondi BAGHTURIA]
Industry Will Save Georgia (Industrialists) or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE]
Labor Party [Shalva NATELASHVILI]
National Democratic Party or NDP [Bachuki KARDAVA]
National Forum [Kakhaber SHARTAVA]
New Rights [Pikria CHIKHRADZE]
Our Georgia-Free Democrats (OGFD) [Irakli KADAGIDZE]
People's Party [Koba DAVITASHVILI
Republican Party [Khatuna SAMNIDZE]
Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]
United National Movement or UNM [Vano MERABISHVILI]

Political pressure groups and leaders:

separatists in the Russian-occupied regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia

International organization participation:

ADB, BSEC, CD, CE, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-11, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO

Diplomatic representation in the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Archil GEGESHIDZE (since 12 April 2013)
chancery: 2209 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390
FAX: [1] (202) 387-0864
consulate(s) general: New York

Diplomatic representation from the US:

chief of mission: Ambassador Richard NORLAND (since 25 July 2012)
embassy: 11 George Balanchine Street, T'bilisi 0131
mailing address: 7060 T'bilisi Place, Washington, DC 20521-7060
telephone: [995] (32) 227-70-00
FAX: [995] (32) 253-23-10

Flag description:

white rectangle with a central red cross extending to all four sides of the flag; each of the four quadrants displays a small red bolnur-katskhuri cross; sometimes referred to as the Five-Cross Flag; although adopted as the official Georgian flag in 2004, the five-cross design appears to date back to the 14th century

National symbol(s):

Saint George; lion

National anthem:

name: 'Tavisupleba' (Liberty)

lyrics/music: Davit MAGRADSE/Zakaria PALIASHVILI (adapted by Joseb KETSCHAKMADSE)
note: adopted 2004; after the Rose Revolution, a new anthem with music based on the operas 'Abesalom da Eteri' and 'Daisi' was adopted

Source: CIA World Fact Book


Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia, with a sliver of land north of the Caucasus extending into Europe; note - Georgia views itself as part of Europe

Geographic coordinates:

42 00 N, 43 30 E

Map references:

Middle East


total: 69,700 sq km
country comparison to the world: 121
land: 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Area - comparative:

slightly smaller than South Carolina

Land boundaries:

total: 1,814 km
border countries: Armenia 219 km, Azerbaijan 428 km, Russia 894 km, Turkey 273 km


310 km

Maritime claims:

territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm


warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast


largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland

Elevation extremes:

lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Mt'a Shkhara 5,201 m

Natural resources:

timber, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth

Land use:

arable land: 5.94%
permanent crops: 1.65%
other: 92.41% (2011)

Irrigated land:

4,328 sq km (2007)

Total renewable water resources:

63.33 cu km (2011)

Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

total: 1.81 cu km/yr (20%/22%/58%)
per capita: 410.6 cu m/yr (2005)

Natural hazards:


Environment - current issues:

air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals

Environment - international agreements:

party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements

Geography - note:

strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them

Source: CIA World Fact Book

Demographics and Population Development

noun: Georgian(s)
adjective: Georgian

Ethnic groups:

Georgian 83.8%, Azeri 6.5%, Armenian 5.7%, Russian 1.5%, other 2.5% (2002 census)


Georgian (official) 71%, Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%
note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia


Orthodox Christian (official) 83.9%, Muslim 9.9%, Armenian-Gregorian 3.9%, Catholic 0.8%, other 0.8%, none 0.7% (2002 census)


4,935,880 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122

Age structure:

0-14 years: 17.6% (male 459,334/female 410,494)
15-24 years: 14% (male 359,559/female 332,182)
25-54 years: 40.9% (male 976,129/female 1,042,898)
55-64 years: 12.2% (male 269,367/female 330,386)
65 years and over: 16.2% (male 295,673/female 459,858) (2014 est.)
population pyramid:  

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 48.6 %
youth dependency ratio: 27 %
elderly dependency ratio: 21.7 %
potential support ratio: 4.6 (2014 est.)

Median age:

total: 37.7 years
male: 34.9 years
female: 40.4 years (2014 est.)

Population growth rate:

-0.11% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206

Birth rate:

12.93 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 155

Death rate:

10.77 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37

Net migration rate:

-3.25 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 182


urban population: 52.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: -0.37% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas - population:

TBILISI (capital) 1.121 million (2011)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.08 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.12 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2014 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth:

note: data do not cover Abkhazia and South Ossetia (2011 est.)

Maternal mortality rate:

67 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 91

Infant mortality rate:

total: 16.68 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 100
male: 18.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 14.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)

Life expectancy at birth:

total population: 75.72 years
country comparison to the world: 90
male: 71.62 years
female: 80.17 years (2014 est.)

Total fertility rate:

1.77 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 159

Contraceptive prevalence rate:

note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2010)

Health expenditures:

9.4% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 34

Physicians density:

4.24 physicians/1,000 population (2011)

Hospital bed density:

2.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)

Drinking water source:

urban: 100% of population
rural: 97.3% of population
total: 98.7% of population
urban: 0% of population
rural: 2.7% of population
total: 1.3% of population (2012 est.)

Sanitation facility access:

urban: 95.5% of population
rural: 90.7% of population
total: 93.3% of population
urban: 4.5% of population
rural: 9.3% of population
total: 6.7% of population (2012 est.)

HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

0.3% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93

HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

6,600 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 119

HIV/AIDS - deaths:

200 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107

Obesity - adult prevalence rate:

22.1% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 82

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:

1.1% (2009)
country comparison to the world: 132

Education expenditures:

2% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 167


definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2011 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):

total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2008)

Child labor - children ages 5-14:

total number: 113,106
percentage: 18 % (2005 est.)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:

total: 33.3% (2012)
country comparison to the world: 23

Source: CIA World Fact Book


Economy - overview:
Georgia's main economic activities include cultivation of agricultural products such as grapes, citrus fruits, and hazelnuts; mining of manganese, copper, and gold; and producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals in small-scale industries. The country imports nearly all its needed supplies of natural gas and oil products. It has sizeable hydropower capacity that now provides most of its energy needs. Georgia has overcome the chronic energy shortages and gas supply interruptions of the past by renovating hydropower plants and by increasingly relying on natural gas imports from Azerbaijan instead of from Russia. Construction of the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline, the South Caucasus gas pipeline, and the Kars-Akhalkalaki Railroad are part of a strategy to capitalize on Georgia's strategic location between Europe and Asia and develop its role as a transit point for gas, oil, and other goods. The expansion of the South Caucasus pipeline, as part of the Shah Deniz II Southern Gas Corridor project, will result in a $2 billion foreign investment in Georgia, the largest ever in the country. Gas from Shah Deniz II is expected to begin flowing in 2019. Georgia's economy sustained GDP growth of more than 10% in 2006-07, based on strong inflows of foreign investment and robust government spending. However, GDP growth slowed following the August 2008 conflict with Russia, and sunk to negative 4% in 2009 as foreign direct investment and workers' remittances declined in the wake of the global financial crisis. The economy rebounded in 2010-13, but FDI inflows, the engine of Georgian economic growth prior to the 2008 conflict, have not recovered fully. Unemployment has also remained high. Georgia has historically suffered from a chronic failure to collect tax revenues; however, since 2004 the government has simplified the tax code, improved tax administration, increased tax enforcement, and cracked down on petty corruption, leading to higher revenues. The country is pinning its hopes for renewed growth on a determined effort to continue to liberalize the economy by reducing regulation, taxes, and corruption in order to attract foreign investment, with a focus on hydropower, agriculture, tourism, and textiles production. The government has received high marks from the World Bank for its anti-corruption efforts. Over the past year the Georgian Dream-led government continued the previous administration's low-regulation, low-tax, free market policies, while modestly increasing social spending, strengthening anti-trust policy, and amending the labor code to comply with International Labor Standards. The government is finalizing its 2020 Economic Development Strategy and has launched the Georgia Co-Investment Fund, a $6 billion private equity fund that will invest in tourism, agriculture, logistics, energy, infrastructure, and manufacturing.

GDP (purchasing power parity):

$27.3 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 121
$26.64 billion (2012 est.)
$25.1 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

GDP (official exchange rate):

$15.95 billion (2013 est.)

GDP - real growth rate:

2.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 129
6.1% (2012 est.)
7.2% (2011 est.)

GDP - per capita (PPP):

$6,100 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 150
$5,900 (2012 est.)
$5,600 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars

Gross national saving:

18% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
17.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
12.6% of GDP (2011 est.)

GDP - composition, by end use:

household consumption: 68.6%
government consumption: 19%
investment in fixed capital: 23.6%
investment in inventories: 3.2%
exports of goods and services: 39.9%
imports of goods and services: -54.4%
(2013 est.)

GDP - composition, by sector of origin:

agriculture: 8.5%
industry: 21.6%
services: 69.9% (2013 est.)

Agriculture - products:

citrus, grapes, tea, hazelnuts, vegetables; livestock


steel, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese, copper, gold), chemicals, wood products, wine

Industrial production growth rate:

3% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96

Labor force:

1.959 million (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 122

Labor force - by occupation:

agriculture: 55.6%
industry: 8.9%
services: 35.5% (2006 est.)

Unemployment rate:

15% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 138
15.1% (2011 est.)

Population below poverty line:

9.2% (2010)

Household income or consumption by percentage share:

lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 31.3% (2008)

Distribution of family income - Gini index:

46 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 34
37.1 (1996)


revenues: $4.834 billion
expenditures: $5.257 billion (2013 est.)

Taxes and other revenues:

30.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91

Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):

-2.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115

Public debt:

36.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 103
36.5% of GDP (2011 est.)
note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities; Georgia does not maintain intra-governmental debt or social funds

Fiscal year:

calendar year

Inflation rate (consumer prices):

-0.5% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 5
-0.9% (2012 est.)

Central bank discount rate:

3.75% (15 January 2013)
country comparison to the world: 67
5.25% (31 December 2012)
note: this is the Refinancing Rate, the key monetary policy rate of the National Bank of Georgia

Commercial bank prime lending rate:

20.7% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 15
22.08% (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of narrow money:

$2.025 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 125
$1.965 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of broad money:

$4.72 billion (31 September 2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
$4.249 billion (31 December 2011 est.)

Stock of domestic credit:

$5.96 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 107
$5.518 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Market value of publicly traded shares:

$943.4 million (31 December 2012 est.)
$NA (31 December 2011)
$NA (31 December 2010 est.)

Current account balance:

-$1.375 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 130
-$1.875 billion (2012 est.)


$2.618 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 134
$2.377 billion (2012 est.)

Exports - commodities:

vehicles, ferro-alloys, fertilizers, nuts, scrap metal, gold, copper ores

Exports - partners:

Azerbaijan 25%, Armenia 11%, Ukraine 7%, Turkey 6%, Russia 6% (2013 est.)


$7.064 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 115
$7.842 billion (2012 est.)

Imports - commodities:

fuels, vehicles, machinery and parts, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals

Imports - partners:

Turkey 17%, Ukraine 8%, Azerbaijan 8%, Russia 7%, China 7% (2013 est.)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

$3.317 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
$2.873 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Debt - external:

$11.74 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 97
$11.67 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - at home:

$11.19 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84
$10.49 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad:

$1.359 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77
$1.329 billion (31 December 2012 est.)

Exchange rates:

laris (GEL) per US dollar -
1.655 (2013 est.)
1.6513 (2012 est.)
1.7823 (2010 est.)
1.6705 (2009 est.)
1.47 (2008 est.)

Source: CIA World Fact Book


Telephones - main lines in use:
1.276 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 67

Telephones - mobile cellular:

4.699 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 116

Telephone system:

general assessment: fixed-line telecommunications network has limited coverage outside Tbilisi; multiple mobile-cellular providers provide services to an increasing subscribership throughout the country
domestic: cellular telephone networks cover the entire country; mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 100 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi
international: country code - 995; the Georgia-Russia fiber-optic submarine cable provides connectivity to Russia; international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available (2011)

Broadcast media:

1 public broadcaster in Tbilisi, 1 state-owned broadcaster in Ajaria Autonomous Republic; 8 privately owned TV stations; state run public broadcaster operates 2 TV stations; dozens of cable TV operators, several major commercial TV stations, and several dozen private radio stations; state run public broadcaster operates 2 radio stations (2012)

Internet country code:


Internet hosts:

357,864 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 59

Internet users:

1.3 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 90

Source: CIA World Fact Book


22 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 135

Airports - with paved runways:

total: 18
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2013)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

total: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 
1 (2013)


2 (2013)


gas 1,596 km; oil 1,175 km (2013)


total: 1,612 km
country comparison to the world: 78
broad gauge: 1,575 km 1.520-m gauge (1,575 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge (37 km electrified) (2008)


total: 19,109 km
country comparison to the world: 113
paved: 19,109 km (includes 69 km of expressways) (2010)

Merchant marine:

total: 142
country comparison to the world: 40
by type: bulk carrier 13, cargo 114, chemical tanker 1, container 1, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 3, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 5, vehicle carrier 2
foreign-owned: 95 (Bulgaria 1, China 10, Egypt 7, Hong Kong 3, Israel 1, Italy 2, Latvia 1, Lebanon 1, Romania 7, Russia 6, Syria 24, Turkey 14, UAE 2, UK 5, Ukraine 10, US 1)
registered in other countries: 1 (unknown 1) (2010)

Ports and terminals:

major seaport(s): Black Sea - Bat'umi, P'ot'i

Source: CIA World Fact Book


Electricity - production:
9.694 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 94

Electricity - consumption:

9.379 billion kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90

Electricity - exports:

1.492 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 50

Electricity - imports:

614 million kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 74

Electricity - installed generating capacity:

4.538 million kW (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 77

Electricity - from fossil fuels:

37.2% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 171

Electricity - from nuclear fuels:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93

Electricity - from hydroelectric plants:

62.8% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31

Electricity - from other renewable sources:

0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176

Crude oil - production:

979.5 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111

Crude oil - exports:

531 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 71

Crude oil - imports:

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 190

Crude oil - proved reserves:

35 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 81

Refined petroleum products - production:

0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147

Refined petroleum products - consumption:

17,280 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 137

Refined petroleum products - exports:

0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 179

Refined petroleum products - imports:

18,500 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 108

Natural gas - production:

9.151 million cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 91

Natural gas - consumption:

1.97 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 79

Natural gas - exports:

0 cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105

Natural gas - imports:

1.96 billion cu m (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 49

Natural gas - proved reserves:

8.495 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 84

Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:

5.868 million Mt (2011 est.)

Source: CIA World Fact Book


Source: CIA World Fact Book

Annual Exports

Top 20 Sectors exported from Kwazulu-Natal in 2017

#DescriptionChapter CodeTotal (in Rands)
1Inorganic chemicals, precious metal compound, isotopes28 R 547,663.00
2Miscellaneous edible preparations21 R 196,096.00
3Electrical, electronic equipment85 R 37,937.00

Source: SARS

Visa Requirements

Visa Required: No


Visa Fee: N/A 

Visa Issuing Authority: tel: (995-32) 989-377; 989-388, fax 997-249

Compulsory Vaccination Requirements: 

Recommend Vaccination Requirements: 

Immunisation against hepatitis A and hepatitis B

Source: CIA World Fact Book

Realistic Export Opportunities

A total of 70 Realistic Export Opportunities (REOs) from South Africa to Georgia are identified based on the North-West University’s (South Africa) TRADE Decision Support Model (DSM).

The methodology is a very useful instrument to identify market opportunities globally for one’s product and also provides a good reference for one to be able to prioritise marketing efforts based on the value and size of these opportunities.

The TRADE-DSM Navigator provides sound information that companies are able to use in developing their export marketing strategy and forms the basis and guidance for further research should this be required.

In total 70 of the products associated with import demand are identified as realistic export opportunities. The relative 'untapped' potential of the market opportunity is shown in the chart below:

A total 'untapped' potential from South Africa’s perspective of approximately 34.75 (in million US dollar terms) based on the average value of the top 6 supplying countries (excluding South Africa) are associated with these specific product export opportunities.

The highest number of identified opportunities are associated with the economic sector of

Machinery & equipment (356-359) .

Not all sectors will be present, as not all economic sectors (some of which are based on economic activity while the REOs are based on traded products) are relevant for all products. However, various other sectors also do exhibit potential.

While the above examples are based on high level economic sectors, the information is available at a much more granular level on the HS 6-digit tariff code level. To demonstrate the following example of a product description is provided:

Sub-heading 84.27:
Fork-lift trucks; other works trucks fitted with lifting or handling equipment:
HS 6-digit product code 8427.10:
Self-propelled trucks powered by an electric motor.

Research reports containing more detailed information related to these realistic export opportunities (down to product level as illustrated with the above product description) for each country are available from TIKZN.

Please contact us if you are interested in more detail by clicking here.

For an example of a more detailed country report please click here.

Please note that a more up-to-date version for the specific country report used in this example is available from TIKZN. This report is provided for demonstration purposes only and should not be used for any decision-making.


Embassies and Diplomats

Read      Download    Embassy Information

Read      Download    Diplomats Information

Trade Agreements

Read African Free Trade Zone Agreement     Download African Free Trade Zone Agreement   African Free Trade Zone Agreement

Read AGOA Trade Agreement     Download AGOA Trade Agreement   AGOA Trade Agreement

Read SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994     Download SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994   SA Trade Agreements with other countries since 1994

Read South African Trade Agreements     Download South African Trade Agreements   South African Trade Agreements

Export Incentives

Read EMIA Individual Participation     Download EMIA Individual Participation   EMIA Individual Participation

Read SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters     Download SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters   SSAS EMIA Sector Specific Assistance Scheme for Emerging Exporters

Read SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme     Download SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme   SSAS Sector Specific Assistance Scheme

Read CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme     Download CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme   CPFP Capital Projects Feasibility Programme

Read Summary of Incentives     Download Summary of Incentives   Summary of Incentives